考试教材及辅助练习

《考试大纲和辅导练习》、《Nutrition And Supplements》
注:考试大纲和辅导练习可向培训机构申请,英文教材可作为学习资料,自愿申请购买。

1.1 Introduction
1.2 Organization of the book
1.3 Definitions used in public health
1.4 What are the key public health problems?
1.5 Food and nutrition policy
1.6 The public health nutrition cycle
1.7 Step 1: Identify key nutrition-related problem
1.8 Step 2: Set goals and broad aims
1.9 Step 3: Define objectives
1.10 Step 4: Create quantitative targets
1.11 Step 5: Develop program
1.12 Step 6: Implementation
1.13 Step 7: Evaluation
Further reading

2.1     Introduction
2.2     Types of study
2.3     Study design: sampling, study size and power
2.4     Measuring exposure
2.5     Measuring outcomes
2.6     Measuring diet–disease (exposure–outcome) associations
2.7     Interpretation of associations
2.8     Expressing results from nutritional epidemiological studies
2.9     Perspectives on the future
Further reading

3.1 Introduction
3.2 Dietary assessment
3.3 Biomarkers as measures for the assessment of nutritional status
3.4 Anthropometric and other clinical measures
3.5 Error in methods of assessment of nutritional status
3.6 Perspectives on the future
Further reading

4.1 Introduction
4.2 Definition of commonly used terms
4.3 Dimensions of physical activity
4.4 Reliability and validity of physical activity assessment instruments
4.5 Physical activity assessment methods
4.6 Perspectives on the future
Further reading

5.1 Introduction
5.2 Definition of the ecological approach
5.3 Individual versus ecological approaches
5.4 Key principles in the ecological approach
5.5 Intervention
5.6 Advantages and disadvantages of this approach
5.7 Guidelines for using the ecological approach to design nutrition interventions
5.8 Ethical issues to consider
5.9 Ecological interventions to change eating habits
5.10 Perspectives on the future
Further reading

6.1 Introduction
6.2 Interventions of supplementary feeding, foods or nutrients
6.3 Changing behavior without giving foods
6.4 Evaluation of programs and interventions
6.5 Perspectives on the future
Further reading

7.1 Introduction
7.2 Overview of dietary recommendations
7.3 Quantitative dietary guidelines
7.4 Qualitative dietary guidelines
7.5 Steps involved in devising food-based dietary guidelines
7.6 Visual presentations of food guides related to dietary guidelines
7.7 Perspectives on the future
Further reading

8.1 Introduction
8.2 The study of food choice
8.3 Population issues affecting food choice
8.4 Individual issues affecting food choice
8.5 Perspectives on the future
Further reading

9.1 Introduction
9.2 Macronutrients, excess energy intake and overweight
9.3 Obesity as a determinant of mortality and morbidity
9.4 Perspectives on the future
Further reading

10.1 Introduction
10.2 Definitions of undernutrition
10.3 Clinical syndromes of undernutrition
10.4 Micronutrient deficiency: “hidden hunger”
10.5 Time trends and contemporary prevalences
10.6 Etiology: determinants and conditioning factors for undernutrition
10.7 Public health consequences of undernutrition
10.8 Policy and programmatic issues in preventing undernutrition
10.9 Policy and programmatic issues in reversing undernutrition
10.10 Perspectives on the future
Further reading

11.1 Introduction
11.2 Consequences of vitamin A deficiency
11.3 Epidemiology
11.4 Prevention and control
11.5 Assessment of vitamin A status
11.6 Monitoring and evaluation
11.7 Perspectives on the future
Further reading

12.1 Introduction
12.2 Definition of iodine deficiency
12.3 Clinical features
12.4 Iodine metabolism
12.5 Reference intakes for iodine
12.6 Public health aspects to iodine deficiency
12.7 Management of iodine deficiency
12.8 Assessment and elimination of iodine deficiency disorders
12.9 Perspectives on the future
Further reading

13.1 Introduction
13.2 Definition and clinical features of iron-deficiency anemia
13.3 Iron metabolism
13.4 Reference intakes for iron
13.5 Public health implications of iron-deficiency anemia
13.6 Perspectives on the future
Further reading

14.1 Introduction
14.2 Epidemiology
14.3 Life-cycle fatness trends
14.4 Definitions and descriptions
14.5 Etiology
14.6 Consequences for public health
14.7 Prevention strategies
14.8 Assessing body image
14.9 Perspectives on the future
Further reading

15.1 Introduction
15.2 Child development and the role of the environment
15.3 Possible mechanisms linking undernutrition to poor development
15.4 Prevalence of nutritional deficiencies
15.5 Intrauterine growth retardation
15.6 Breast-feeding and its influence on child development
15.7 Wasting, stunting and severe clinical malnutrition
15.8 Iron-deficiency anemia
15.9 Iodine deficiency
15.10 Zinc deficiency
15.11 Vitamin A deficiency
15.12 Studies on the effects of short-term hunger and school feeding
15.13 Perspectives on the future
Further reading

16.1 Introduction
16.2 Role and importance of breast-feeding
16.3 Barriers to successful breast-feeding
16.4 Breast-feeding challenges
16.5 Potential feeding difficulties
16.6 Breast-feeding and human immunodeficiency virus transmission
16.7 Infant feeding after 6 months
16.8 Monitoring the child’s growth: the road-to-health chart
16.9 Perspectives on the future
Further reading

17.1 Introduction
17.2 Biochemical basis for the role of folate in adverse outcomes of pregnancy
17.3 Evidence that folate and other related vitamins play a protective role against adverse outcomes of pregnancy
17.4 Prevention of folate-responsive adverse outcomes of pregnancy
17.5 Perspectives on the future
Further reading

18.1 Introduction
18.2 Observations establishing the link between size at birth and later cardiovascular disease
18.3 Potential confounding influences
18.4 Findings for particular cardiovascular and metabolic disorders
18.5 Determinants of fetal growth and programming: the importance of fetal nutrition
18.6 Maternal influences on fetal nutrition
18.7 Perspectives on the future
Further reading

19.1 Introduction
19.2 Epidemiology
19.3 Correlations between coronary heart disease rates and food intake
19.4 Prospective observation of subjects for whom diet histories are available
19.5 Cardiovascular risk factors and their nutritional determinants
19.6 Clinical trials of cardiovascular risk reduction by dietary modification
19.7 Nutritional strategies for high-risk populations
19.8 Perspectives on the future
Further reading

20.1 Introduction
20.2 Classification of diabetes
20.3 Diagnosis of diabetes
20.4 Risk factors for the development of diabetes
20.5 Diabetes as a public health issue
20.6 Prevention and management of diabetes
20.7 Scope for primary prevention of diabetes
20.8 Perspectives on the future
Further reading

21.1 Introduction
21.2 Mechanisms of effect of diet
21.3 Carcinogenesis: initiation, promotion and progression to metastases
21.4 Gene–nutrient interactions in carcinogenesis
21.5 Epidemiological studies of diet and cancer
21.6 Dietary constituents of interest
21.7 Prevention: preventive potential
21.8 Prevention guidelines for individuals and populations
21.9 Perspectives on the future
Further reading

22.1 Introduction
22.2 Definition
22.3 Epidemiology: the scale of the problem
22.4 The biology of bone health
22.5 Perspectives on the future
Further reading